- Jean-Yves Bassole
- Christopher Candlin
- David Connolly
- Literary Translation Skills: Taught or Caught?
- Clare Donovan
- Willis Edmondson
- Heshām M. Hāssan
- Juliane House
- Julie Johnson
- Christiane Nord
- Anastasia Papaconstantinou
- Jan Parker
- Sieglinde E. Pommer
- Uwe Reinke
- Douglas Robinson
- Margaret Rogers
- Dieter Rummel
- Mark Shuttleworth
- Maria Sidiropoulou
- Elzbietta Muscat-Tabakowska
- Peeter Torop
- Sharon O’Brien
- Judy Wakabayashi
Cette communication se fonde sur l’expérience acquise par l’auteur pendant plus de vingt-cinq années d’enseignement à l’Université Aristote de Thessalonique puis à l’Université Marc Bloch de Strasbourg. Elle part de la constatation suivante : dans le climat de stress qui entoure les examens, il est fréquent que l’étudiant qui vient de traduire un texte ne soit pas en état de le relire avec le regard critique approprié ou n’ait pas le temps de réviser correctement sa traduction. Malheureusement, le même problème se reproduira à coup sûr lorsqu’il sera entré dans la vie professionnelle, le respect des délais venant remplacer le stress de l’examen.
Il s’agit donc de créer des réflexes de réviseur chez les futurs traducteurs qui seront appelés à se relire et à se réviser dans le feu de l’action, en leur donnant régulièrement des textes traduits par des débutants, des textes traduits par des traducteurs non confirmés, des textes traduits par des traducteurs confirmés, puis en leur soumettant des patchworks de textes traduits par différents traducteurs, l’objectif étant, d’une part, de tester leur capacité critique sur une traduction qui n’est peut-être pas homogène et, de l’autre, de voir s’ils sont capables d’effectuer une harmonisation.
Dans cet exercice, l’étudiant doit utiliser deux armes essentielles : la cohérence et la vraisemblance. C’est l’apport de cette méthode que l’auteur présente ici en prenant comme outil de travail un texte publié par la Société Hellénique de Terminologie (ELETO). Mais la méthode présentée ne limite pas au domaine de la terminologie ; elle s’applique également aux traductions, le texte traduit étant examiné dans la perspective de son fonctionnement interne.
The Interpreter and Interpreting as the Same or Other: An Issue for Training?
Interpreting is a specific form of mediation in the complex, formalised setting of international conferences. The interpreter mediates between participants who themselves are frequently acting by representation or delegation. The presentation will examine a series of issues, arising from the dynamics and pragmatics of international conferences that are of relevance to training. These include the ambiguities of the interpreter’s role and status, as manifested through social codes and language; the tensions that can arise from close engagement, both intellectual and emotional, with the Speech (message) and the interpreter’s position as an “outsider”. Interpreting is not the original, as manifested through the presence of devices such as headsets or gender mismatch between speaker and interpreter, for instance. However, ideally equivalence is accepted by the users and intermediation may even become “invisible”. How is such “invisible” equivalence achieved?
The specific aspect of changing technology will be addressed, as this is highly relevant to the communication setting and to the interpreter’s place. Thus, the move from consecutive to simultaneous mode changed both physically and figuratively the interpreter’s place. And further changes can be expected with the shift to remote interpreting.
The Interaction Between Target Text and Source Text: Pedagogic Implications
The 1st Athens International Conference on Translation and Interpretation in 2006 posed the question whether the translator be viewed as „a mere technician of language mediation“, whereby the term „mere“ itself implied a negative response to this rhetorical question. The implicit tension was between a view of the translation process as technical mediation, or as a manifestation of the translator’s own identity, textual creativity, and indeed cultural or political credo. This tension is voiced in the description of this conference, and will be the focus of this paper.
Such links are of course not peculiar to translated texts, but are implicit or indeed explicit in „original“ texts, be they e.g. political, literary, or educational in nature . Some examples will be expounded - the publication and condemnation of the work of Salman Rushdie being a recent example.
It becomes obvious then that when translation is attempted, the separation of the socio-pragmatic or indeed the socio-political content of the text from its emotive, semantic, and pragmative features and consequences is difficult if not impossible. So the opposition between the “neutral” and the non-neutral translator is difficult to uphold - indeed some would say it cannot be upheld: the notion of an impersonal, uncommitted or neutral translation is a nonsense.
Three cases will be handled in exemplification, namely the work and views of Domenica Pezzini and of Mona BAKER, and the use of the Koran in Persia.
The Translation of Yusif Idris's Short Stories into Greek: HAU Workshop 2008
Yusif Idris (1927-1991) is an Egyptian writer who is considered to be the pioneer of the art of short story in the entire Arab world. His works are well-known in Europe and the USA, although, less known in Greece. We chose to translate some of Yusif Idris's works for a number of reasons.
The HAU's students of the Arabic Language Department, who contributed to the Workshop, actually did superb work for the first time in Greece. The Workshop focused not only on a standard translation, but also on exploring the stylistic colours and the use of symbolism. This way it was possible to approach the social fabric and the psychosynthesis of the Arab conscious.
The paper focuses on :
- Yusif Idris: who is who.
- Why Yusif Idris?
- Yusif Idris's works.
- The Cosmos of Yusif Idris's works.
- "The Journey" of Yusif Idris: Analysis.
In this paper I try to bridge the gap between the linguistic and the cultural studies view of translation by sketching a theory of translation as a Third Space Phenomenon. In a second step I explore some implications for translator education and translator identity.
Translations are often specifiably different from both comparable source and target original texts: They are located in-between, are hybrid, reside in Third Space. The sui generis Third Space nature of translation has recently been confirmed by the results of corpus-based translation studies. However, this “Third–Spaceness” differs systematically according as the translation is covert or overt. In the covert variety, it is due to idiosyncratic ‘cultural filtering’ undertaken under the guise of audience design; in the overt variety, it stems from expression difficulties related to system differences. Both cases will be illustrated by examples.
One of the implications for translator education is for translators to become sophisticated linguistic-cultural experts able to reflect on their translatory action and the nature of translation as a Third Space phenomenon. This can be done by treating translation as part of applied linguistics – a discipline broad enough to integrate translation-relevant linguistic and cultural fields of inquiry such as contrastive pragmatic and discourse analysis, genre theory, politeness, communicative conventions, style, language variation and change, linguistic relativity, gender and language, culture as a speech community’s way of life versus fluid small cultures of communities of practice, intercultural communication, globalisation versus localisation, dominance and conflict. All of these, and many more, attest to the transdisciplinary nature of applied linguistics and its inherent usefulness as a framework for translator education.
Embedding translation into such a framework also has implications for translators’ identies. As human beings, translators have personal identities which emerge from their backgrounds, upbringing, affiliations, predilections, values and beliefs, emotions and ideologies. As professionals, translators’ identities emerge from both continuous top-down and bottom-up knowledge integration and procedural know-how and control. Professional identities are closely related to education and experience - personal identities have many different roots. Convergence of the two is one of the preconditions for excellence and job satisfaction.
These are, at least in part, contradictory qualities, and it may be in order to ask what this all-rounder’s professional and cultural identity is like and how it is formed in the course of translator training. Should we train translators, as Anthony Pym put it some time ago, to be mercenary experts, able (and ready) to fight under the flag of whoever pays them? Or to be “servants” (to the word, to the client, to the target-text receivers, to the source-text author), as we often hear? “Serving does not usually go together with a well-developed ego”, says Paul Kussmaul. However, in order to become equal partners in their negotiations with clients, they need self-confidence and a stable identity, and these arise from professional and successful behavior.
Translating Politics: Action-Reaction-Interaction
Political discourse is the main means which human beings develop in order to express themselves in terms of political actions, sharing perceptions and values with others. Aristotle gave the celebrated definition of humans as creatures whose nature is to live in a polis. Obviously thereafter man is a political animal (politikon zoon) whose personality is formed and shaped in the social environment of the city-polis.
However, although language and more precisely political language is socially constituted it must also keep its creative character which raises critical awareness in the public. The concept of innate LAD (Language Acquisition Device) which plays a major role in the language acquisition process, one could claim that is substituted, in the case of political discourse, by another device which is called "cheater detector"and checks for consistency, truthfulness or manipulation. This natural back-up ability to detect exploiters and deceivers (P. Chilton, 2004) will be explored in the present paper under a three fold axis of action-reaction-interaction involving politicians, audiences and translators. The aim is to further emphasize the need for training translators in the field of political discourse.
Since politics is an extension of ethics, political acts are also moral acts. Translators therefore need to be extremely sensitive when translating political texts as they have a more important role to play than that of merely disseminating knowledge. They should be able to detect minute nuances in words and constructions and, in a sense, promote better understanding among people.
The idea of a voice 'lost in translation' goes back at least to Eva Hoffman's novel of lost and finally refound but hybrid identity. But, is the translator, working between cultures as well as languages, subject to feelings of challenge to her identity? Or is that what a professional translator should be: someone with a professional skill and without a voice to lose?
The Identity of the Legal Translator
Due to globalization, law has become a transnational phenomenon. In the framework of European integration, law has also become multilingual. These developments challenge traditional ideas of what legal translation must entail and what skills and knowledge translators of legal texts need to possess.
Today, the view seems to be generally accepted that a legal translator should not only have an excellent language proficiency and a sound command of the relevant specialized legal terminologies but also profound legal knowledge in more than one legal system. As more and more lawyers do legal translation work, the role of legal translation is not only to contribute to a better understanding of the national laws but to the law in general.
Legal translators negotiate identities across legal cultures and have the complex task of identifying the self as opposed to the other in cross-cultural legal encounters. In this trans-disciplinary dialogue, do institutional identities impact and transform the purpose and goals of translation thereby constructing and maintaining a specific legal translator identity?
Exploring the changing identity of legal translators, this presentation investigates the following questions: Who translates legal texts today? Do these new legal translators have different qualifications from older generations of legal translators? What skills should the ideal legal translator possess? What implications do these insights have for the education and training of future legal translators? How can we foster disciplinary identity?
For many people technology and ethics do not seem to go together very well. They appear to constitute an antagonistic dichotomy, rather than making easily compatible bedfellows. While technically-minded researchers, economists and politicians often attach little importance to ethical issues, ethicists and philosophers frequently seem to be overly skeptical and spread too much fear about new technologies.
And yet, technology and ethics are certainly not incompatible bedfellows, but just very difficult ones. Otherwise certain fields of applied ethics like the ethics of technology and computer or cyberethics would not exist.
These more general considerations are likewise valid for the relation between translation technology and translation ethics. In the context of this paper, translation is seen as a professional service, and thus the ethics of translation will be regarded as an ethics of commitment, i.e., a commitment to the values of the trade (cf. Chesterman 2001). The paper will argue that in line with a general ethics of technology our profession is in need of an ethics of translation technology. It will discuss which aspects of the development and application of translation technology require ethical guidelines. The paper will also look at various sources like national and international professional standards and codes of good practice to find out whether and to what extent they might already include issues related to an ethics of translation technology.
In 1999 the European Union's translation services engaged in a rather ambitious endeavour: the "Inter-Active Terminology for Europe" (IATE). This project was to create a single terminology database for all EU institutions and agencies. In the process all existing terminology resources were to be merged; IATE would be web-based and fully inter-active; it would permit the EU's linguistic staff to participate in the creation and maintenance of terminology, thus making relevant terminology available faster. Finally, by allowing for cooperation and coordination between the EU's services, IATE would reduce duplication of effort and make terminology work more efficient.
Teaching Localisation Skills via E-learning?
The Translator as a Social Scientist: T he T.E.G.MA (Translated English-Greek Material) Compilation Project
A great deal of useful descriptive work has been undertaken through monolingual corpus investigation and a great number of data-driven reference works are now available to assist language-learning (Henry and Roseberry 2001, Hunston 2002, Ghadessy) and translation-training. Exploitation of monolingual corpora has been followed by an increasingly expanding interest in parallel corpora and their pedagogic value (Olohan 2004). These developments assume a social science perspective into Translation Studies.
The study explores the potential of an English-Greek specialized mini-corpus to empower translator-trainees (and EFL learners). T.E.G.MA is a monitor, parallel mini-corpus, the result of a collaborative effort involving postgraduate students assembling a varied corpus of material as part of their course requirements. The T.E.G.MA-news section is a monitor corpus enlarged and updated periodically. The focus is on journalistic prose and on raising awareness of pragmatic appropriateness in a particular genre, through the use of parallel corpora. T.E.G.MA is used as an awareness raising resource aiming at promoting proficiency beyond the most minimally utilitarian level – in either one of the languages involved in the information exchange. Cross-linguistic comparison in parallel corpora encourages discussion which draws on students’ unconscious knowledge of how language works in their own social context, thus raising socio-cultural awareness in either environment.
Teaching the impossible: grammar, culture and “idioculture” in literary translation
In the last decades TS has been steadily developing into a full fledged scholarly discipline. People make worthwhile contributions to translation theory; theorists and practitioners alike think and write about the role of the translator as a mediator between source and target cultures. But, although the need to teach translation is already generally recognized, such works on translation pedagogy as would go beyond standard lists of practical guidelines for trainers and trainees are few and far between. As to literary translation, and the translation of poetry in particular, according to general opinion the thing is unteachable and as such belongs to the elusive and ephemeral domain of art and individual talent. It would be hard to claim that translators of poetic texts should be produced (trained) in the same way as, say, sworn translators of specialized texts. But there is much to be said for the usefulness of poetry for the teaching of other types of translation.
Contrary to general beliefs, poetry – and lyrical poetry in particular – provides perfect material for teaching translation in general. Trivially, such texts are short and therefore can be dealt with in their entirety. Less trivially, they usually contain more “teaching points” than other genres, thus making the teaching more effective. I will use a sample poem to prove the usefulness of this type of exercise in demonstrating that:
- when we translate we translate our own interpretation of a text rather than the text itself
- grammar conveys semantic content in much the same way as lexical material does
- the translator is indeed a mediator between (at least) two cultures
translators must be aware of the fact that they also mediate between individual human beings, and thus between different “idiocultures”. Here, situation is borrowed from Dewey. It is more
than just the surrounding but the contextual whole to
which experiences and objects are connected.
Idioculture is borrowed from Fine. It is a “system of
knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs shared
by members of an interacting group .” Fine, G.A.,(1987) With the Boys, Chicag
- University of Chicago Press
- Kultura małych grup – u mnie skrajnie: jednostek.
Disciplinary identity depends on how the disciplinary research object is conceived of. If translation studies is a discipline studying translation and translating, it is natural that it can define its identity at the intersection between translation and translating.
Translators work at the boundaries of languages, cultures, and societies. They position themselves between the poles of specificity and adaptation in accordance with the strategies of their translational behaviour. They either preserve the otherness of the other or they transform the other into self. By the same token, they cease to be simple mediators, because in a semiotic sense they are capable of generating new languages for the description of a foreign language, text, or culture, and of renewing a culture or of having an influence on the dialogic capacity of a culture with other cultures as well as with itself. In this way, translators work not only with natural languages but also with metalanguages, languages of description. One of the missions of the translator is to increase the receptivity and dialogic capability of a culture, and through these also the internal variety of that culture. As mediators between languages, translators are important creators of new metalanguages.
The association of problems of translation simultaneously with communication and metacommunication indicates both the naturalness of the complex approach to translation activity and the multi-leveled nature of communication processes in culture. That which on one level of culture manifests itself as a process of communication and a dialogue between addresser and addressee can be seen on a deeper level as the autocommunication of culture and a dialogue of the culture with itself. It is very important axiologically to see both levels, since autocommunicative processes increase the coherence of a culture, support its identity, and do this with the help of self-modellings.
If one wants to understand translation it is necessary to see the process of translation, on the one hand, as a complex of interlinguistic, intralinguistic, and intersemiotic translations, and on the other hand, as a complex of linguistic, cultural, economic, and ideological activity. Then it is also easier to approach the translator. The analysis of the activity of the translator along with communicative activity and autocommunicative activity opens a new perspective for the understanding of the phenomenon of translation and compels us to study more seriously the axiological and moral problems of translation.
The utterance that “localisation involves more than just translation” is now almost a cliché. Yes, localisation involves more than translation, but translation is at the core of the localisation industry. It is its raison d’être.
Histories of Translation: Training Future Scholars
This paper presents some initial reflections on a newly introduced Ph.D. seminar at Kent State University in Histories of Translation—a title intended to highlight the plurality and diversity of translation traditions. After presenting the pedagogical and disciplinary rationale for the inclusion of this course in the Ph.D. program, the paper describes the interweaving (rather than separate presentation) of historical content and methodological issues on which this course is based. The course has a somewhat ‘subversive’ agenda in that it gives more weight to non-Western traditions than Western traditions and it focuses on exploring ‘blank spaces’ in translation history rather than imparting readily available facts about better-known traditions and topics. The purpose is to counter the Eurocentric bias of much current writing on translation history and to interest translation scholars of the future in filling in the gaps. Methodologically, the focus is on introducing basic techniques in historical research as well as different approaches to and issues in historiography in general and translation historiography in particular, so that students might then apply these methods and awareness to topics of their own choosing.